International Geologiical Congress - Oslo 2008

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ASI-02 Geology and mineral resources of Northern and Central Eurasia

 

Metallogenic 2.5M map of central Asia: Spatiotemporal trends in localization of mineral deposits

 

Oleg Petrov, A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) (Russian Federation)
Andrey Morozov, Rosnedra (Russian Federation)
Shuwen Dong, Geological Institute of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (China)
Evgeny Kiselev, A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) (Russian Federation)
Vitaly Shatov, A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) (Russian Federation)
Sergey Shokalsky, A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) (Russian Federation)
Vyacheslav Feoktistov, A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) (Russian Federation)
Georgy Shatkov, A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) (Russian Federation)
Tingju Chen, Geological Institute of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (China)
Gunchin Dejidmaa , MRPAM (Mongolia)
Bokchul Kim, Korean Institute of Geology and Mineral Recourses (KIGAM) (Republic of Korea)
 

 

The metallogenic map of Central Asia and adjacent areas at a scale of 1:2,500,000 was compiled by a team of geologists from Russia, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Republic of Korea. This map bears integral information on 5200 mineral deposits and 1500 metallogenic units (provinces, zones, districts, and clusters) and displays the real pattern of mineral resources in nine Asian countries. The tectonic map of Central Asia supplemented by structural, compositional, and metallogenic characteristics of tectonic units serves as a specialized base of the metallogenic map, which provides insights into the formation of mineral deposits related to the two main types of tectonic processes:
(1) spreading in combination with accretion and collision (ore deposits at active and passive continental margins) and (2) deep mantle diapirism and intracontinental rifting (mineral deposits in a within-plate setting). In addition, special types of deposits in cratons (metamorphic deposits on shields and sedimentary deposits in plate complexes) are distinguished.
Deposits of chromite, asbestos, Cu, Ni, and Co in ophiolites are formed in accretionary and collisional settings. VHMS deposits of base and noble metals, skarn and porphyry-type deposits are characteristic of active continental margins (e.g. the Urals, Central Kazakhstan, Rudny Altai). The large SEDEX, VMT, and other large stratiform deposits are typical of passive continental margins. Epithermal and telethermal polymetallic Au, Ag, Hg, and Sb deposits are localized in transcontinental strike-slip faults and shear zones that inherit seismofocal paleozones and sutures.


Large and unique deposits (Fe and REE; diamond, uranium, and fluorite; Cu-Ni ore; Ti, Nb and Ta deposits in carbonatites associated with alkaline ultramafic and mafic complexes) are formed in relation to deep mantle diapirism and intracontinental rifting. Suprarift and rift-related sedimentary basins are hosts for unique accumulations of hydrocarbons, salts, and uranium. Unique hydrogenic uranium deposits are known in the systems of Mesozoic and Cenozoic grabens and foredeeps.
The basic trends of continental crust evolution and the interaction of two principally distinct types of tectonic processes control the epochs of ore formation and accumulation of hydrocarbons, giving both concentric and linear metallogenic zoning. The dynamic links of sedimentary basins and their frameworks make it possible to establish conditions of migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons and the settings favourable for the formation of large hydrogenic uranium deposits.

 

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