International Geologiical Congress - Oslo 2008

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ASI-02 Geology and mineral resources of Northern and Central Eurasia

 

Geologic and tectonic framework of Central-Northern Asia

 

Tingdong Li, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (China)
 

 

China, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and Republic of Korea have compiled Geological Map, Tectonic Map, Metallogenic Map of Non-Fossil Fuel Deposits, and Map of Fossil Fuel Deposits of Central Asia and Adjacent Areas at 1: 2 500 000 Through the compilation of the geological map, geologic and tectonic framework of Central-Northern Asia may be summarized as follows:
Asia consists of some large or small continental blocks and orogenic systems sandwiched between these blocks, superposed by numerous Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins. The formation of The Asian continent has experienced multiple divergences, convergences, accretions and assemblages of the constituent blocks.
The geological framework of the Asian continent is constructed of Eurasian, African, India-Australian and Pacific plates due to their interaction. It consists of 4 types of geological units:
1. Craton blocks
They include Seberia, Turan, Tarim, Sino-Korea and Yangtze blocks. Siberia block and Sino-Korea block were solidified and saw the formation of a unified basement at the end of Paleoproterozoic consisting of 3 or 4 metamorphic rock series. The cover, consists of Meso-Neoproterozoic, Lower Palaeozoic, Upper Palaeozoic-Middle Triassic, Jurassic-Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments.
Turan, Tarim and Yangtze blocks were cratonized 800 Ma ago due to the Jinning orogeny. The basement rocks are composed of 2 or 3 metamorphic rock series of Archean and Proterozoic. The cover consists of 4 rock series.
2. Orogenic systems
They include Arctic, Ural-Mongolian, Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling and Coastal Pacific orogenic systems. The Ural-Mongolian and Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling systems are intercontinental accretional orogenic systems mainly of Palaeozoic; the Arctic orogenic system is Mesozoic in age. The Circum-Pacific orogenic system is a huge system developed on the basis of different tectonic units since Mesozoic; The above-mentioned orogenic systems all include again some orogenic belts and medium or small "median masses".
3. Sedimentary basins
They include West Seberia basin, the largest basin in the region, and Kolyma, Turan, Tarim, Ordos, Bureya-Songliao and Bohai Bay basins, etc. They are all oil- and gas-bearing basins.
Turan, Tarim, Ordos and Bohai Bay basins are all Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, or Cenozoic basins, developed on the basis of craton blocks.
The formations of Turan and Tarim basins were related to the collisions of India-Australia and Africa plates with Eurasia plate and uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet and Iran plateaus. The formations of Kolyma, Bureya-Songliao and Bohai Bay basins were related to the overlap of Eurasia plate and Mesozoic Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean as well as their interaction with Pacific plate.
4. Marginal basins
They are marginal sea basins on the eastern margin of the Asian continent, including basins of Okhotsk, Japanese Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea, etc. They are all oil- and gas-bearing basins.

 

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