Agung Harijoko, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)
I Wayan Warmada, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)
Toto Sudargo, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)
Emy Huriati, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)
Dhuta Widagdo, IDD Research Center (Indonesia)
Koichiro Watanabe, Kyushu University (Japan)
An Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) survey conducted by Department of Health in 2003 indicated significantly high goiter rate values of most Indonesian regencies. It points out that IDD is still prevalent in Indonesia; especially those which are situated within volcanic landscape including some regencies in Java Island. In order to understand the contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors to IDD incident, we conducted the survey at two Quaternary volcanic areas (Muntilan district in Magelang Regency and Sumowono district in Semarang Regency) and one Tertiary volcaniclastic area (Kismantoro district in Wonogiri Regency). The surveys measure iodine concentration in soil, well and spring waters consumed by the communities; food recall, and iodine excretion urine of school age children. Laboratory analysis using Ultra Violet Visible Spectrometer demonstrated that iodine contents in soil and water from the three areas are essentially similar. Iodine content in soil ranges from 0.73 to 1.47 ppm, 0.92 to 1.35 ppm and 1.13 to 1.64 ppm for Sumowono, Muntilan and Kismantoro districts respectively. While, the iodine contents in the spring and well waters from the study areas are almost similar ranging from 0.03 to 0.04 ppm. These values are very low and may not be sufficient to supply iodine consumption as suggested by WHO. This implies that the study areas are highly risk on IDD incident.
Human primarily obtain iodine supply from meal and water, so the food chain will influence the occurrence of IDD incident. Food recall survey suggested that daily iodine intake from non salt-food in the three districts is lower than that is suggested by WHO. However, EIU median in the study areas is classified as adequate to a bit high. This suggests that iodine introduction through iodine capsule lowered the IDD risk. Unfortunately, the community in poverty particularly who live in a remote area in Kismantoro district, consume a lot of cassava that contain goitrogen. In other words, they may suffer from IDD. Based on the study result, we conclude that people in volcanic landscape are naturally highly risk in IDD incident as the food chain within this area may trigger the occurrence of IDD incident.